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Anna Helen Zickwolf

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Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts, are prominent features of healthy dietary patterns. In addition to providing energy and essential micronutrients, plant-based foods contribute thousands of biologically active phytochemicals plant chemicals that may affect health to the human diet.

While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals is limited. Although scientists are very interested in the potential for specific phytochemicals to prevent or treat disease, current scientific evidence suggests that plant-based foods are the healthiest phytochemical delivery system.

Despite disagreements regarding the optimal components of a healthy diet, the importance of fruit and vegetables is rather undisputed. The results of numerous epidemiological studies provide consistent evidence suggesting associations between diets rich in fruit and vegetables and lower risks of chronic disease.

On the other hand, evidence that very high doses of individual micronutrients or phytochemicals found in fruit and vegetables can provide similar health benefits is inconsistent and relatively weak. In addition to essential micronutrients, fruit and vegetables contain thousands of biologically active phytochemicals that are likely to interact in a number of ways to prevent disease and promote health 1.

Fruit and vegetables are rich in antioxidants , which help protect the body from oxidative damage induced by pro-oxidants. The best way to take advantage of these complex interactions is to eat a variety of fruit and vegetables. Prospective cohort studies have consistently reported inverse associations between high intakes of fruit and vegetables and risk of cardiovascular disease CVD , including coronary heart disease CHD and stroke However, regarding primary CVD prevention in high-risk subjects, evidence that increasing intakes of fruit and vegetable can improve cardiovascular risk factors is scarce because of a lack of long-term intervention studies 5.

Blood pressure lowering effectively reduces CVD risk 8. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, also characterized by high fruit and vegetable intake, might further contribute to preventing cardiovascular events in healthy and high-risk subjects through normalizing total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the circulation 9.

A number of compounds may play a part in the cardioprotective effects of fruit and vegetables, including vitamin C , folate , potassium , fiber , and various phytochemicals 10, However, supplementation with individual micronutrients or phytochemicals has not generally resulted in significantly decreased incidence of cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials. Thus, in the case of fruit and vegetables, the benefit of the whole may be greater than the sum of its parts. Yet, a recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies failed to find any association between intakes of vegetables, legumes, fruit, or nuts and the risk of type 2 diabetes In contrast, high intakes of whole-grain and dairy foods were linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, while consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and red and processed meat were associated with an increased risk of diabetes Whether evidence for a potential protective effect of fruit and vegetables regarding type 2 diabetes is more easily detectable when they are combined with other food groups within a diet rather than when their effect is singled out is unclear.

Yet, it is unclear whether the potential benefit of such a diet is linked to the fact that it does not include foods that are associated with a higher diabetes risk i. Nevertheless, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition EPIC -Norfolk, a prospective study that followed 3, participants for nearly 11 years, a lower risk of type 2 diabetes was linked to higher intakes of vegetables but not fruit , as well as with a greater diversity of consumed fruit and vegetables Without changes in lifestyle behavior, especially regarding dietary habits and physical activity, individuals with prediabetes will eventually progress to develop overt type 2 diabetes.

Strategies promoting healthier eating habits to improve glucose control usually encourage the consumption of more fruit and vegetables and the concomitant reduction of sugar and fat intake.

The American Diabetes Association does not specifically emphasize an increase in fruit and vegetable intake for diabetes prevention yet recommends dietary strategies that include reducing caloric and fat intake, as well as increasing intake of whole-grain foods and dietary fiber that can be sourced in fruit and vegetables A plethora of observational studies has investigated the relationship between intakes of fruit and vegetables and risk of developing site-specific cancers.

A report summarized the findings of 27 studies that examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to incidental cancer in participants of the ongoing, multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition EPIC study No associations were observed between fruit intake and cancers of the lymphatic system, stomach, pancreas , breast, cervix, prostate , or bladder.

There were also no inverse associations between intakes of vegetables and risk of cancer. Further, mixed results from recent meta-analyses of observational studies are reported in Table 1 , with significant associations noted in bold. Some of the discrepancies might be attributed to study design.

Compared to prospective cohort studies, which collect dietary information from participants before they are diagnosed with cancer, retrospective case-control studies are more susceptible to bias in the selection of participants cases and controls and with dietary recall For example, this might explain why fruit intake is associated with the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the meta-analysis of six case-control studies but not in that of three cohort studies in the meta-analysis by Li et al.

Inaccurate measurements introducing measurement bias and changes in the diet during follow-up in prospective cohort studies may also contribute to reporting associations that are proven spurious or to missing true associations. A meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested that, when compared to direct measurements of plasma carotenoids, the use of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess carotenoid intake introduced measurements errors that led to underestimating the strength of the association between carotenoid intake and reduced breast cancer risk Additional evidence from observational studies, discussed in MIC articles focusing specifically on cruciferous vegetables , garlic , carotenoid -rich vegetables, and legumes suggests that high intakes of certain classes of vegetables are associated with reduced risk of individual cancers.

Fruit and vegetables are rich in precursors of bicarbonate ions HCO 3 — , which serve to buffer acids in the body. When the quantity of bicarbonate ions is insufficient to maintain normal pH , the body is capable of mobilizing alkaline calcium salts from bone in order to neutralize acids consumed in the diet and generated by metabolism It has been hypothesized that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables could help reduce the net acid content of the diet and preserve calcium in bones, which might otherwise be mobilized to maintain normal pH to the detriment of bone health.

Results from the ancillary DASH-Sodium study, which emphasizes the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole-grain foods, and low-fat dairy, supported a beneficial link between bone health and fruit and vegetable intake.

Compared to a control diet, one month-administration of the DASH diet to pre hypertensive middle-aged adults significantly lowered the rate of bone turnover, as shown by reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin OC , a marker of bone formation released by osteoblasts into circulation during the mineralization of newly synthesized collagen. However, more recent randomized controlled interventions found no effect of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on markers of bone turnover Several observational studies have examined intakes of fruit and vegetables in relation to bone mineral density BMD in men and women, providing mixed results reviewed in In an early cross-sectional analysis of the longitudinal Framingham Osteoporosis Study in elderly adults mean age, 75 years , baseline intakes of fruit and vegetables were positively associated with BMD at various sites, including trochanter, femoral neck, and radius Baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were also positively associated with longitudinal changes of trochanter BMD over four years in elderly men but not elderly women 48, Two recent cross-sectional studies in Chinese cohorts reported positive relationships between BMD and intakes of fruit rather than vegetables 50, The cross-sectional study of 3, Chinese adults ages, years reported positive associations between whole-body, total hip, and femoral neck BMD and higher intakes of apples, pears, peaches, pineapples, plums, and to a lesser extent, citrus fruit Further subgroup analysis linked higher hip fracture risk specifically with low intakes of vegetables rather than fruit.

The consumption of fruit and vegetables has been recently examined in relation to fracture-related hospitalizations identified during a Further analyses suggested an inverse association between consumption of allium vegetables onion, leek, and garlic and risk of fracture Although observational studies suggest a positive relationship between diets rich in fruit and vegetables and bone health during aging, randomized controlled studies are needed to examine the nature of this association.

Cataracts are thought to be caused by oxidative damage of proteins in the eye's lens induced by long-term exposure to ultraviolet UV light The resulting cloudiness and discoloration of the lens leads to vision loss that becomes more severe with age.

In a large Swedish prospective study that followed 30, middle-aged and elderly women for a mean 7. Subgroup analyses showed that this inverse association was statistically significant in women younger than 65 years and in corticosteroid users In addition, a large randomized controlled trial in 5, subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease recently reported no difference in cataract surgery incidence over a seven-year follow-up period between participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet that included the whole range of antioxidant nutrients and those assigned to a control diet In industrialized countries, degeneration of the macula , located in the center of the retina , is the leading cause of blindness in older adults Several recent observational studies have examined AMD prevalence , incidence, progression, or severity in relation to dietary patterns.

Most of them used constructed scoring systems reflecting the level of adherence to specific dietary patterns by individuals. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean Diet Score system that captured high intakes of key food items, such as olive oil, wine, fruit, vegetables or salad, fish, and legumes , and low intakes of meat.

High adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was associated with a reduced risk of developing large drusen, but there was no association with the risk of early or advanced AMD Of note, this association was no longer valid when the analysis was restricted to individuals with a genetically determined susceptibility to AMD, i. High adherence to the "Oriental" dietary pattern characterized by consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruit, fish, whole grains, poultry, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower risks of early and advanced AMD.

In contrast, higher risks of early and advanced AMD were found in individuals with high adherence to a "Western" diet that included red and processed meat, potatoes, French fries, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, and sweets and desserts Among observational studies that focused on individual food groups or nutrients, some have suggested that high intakes of fruit, vegetables, or antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin C , vitamin E , and carotenoids , might be protective against AMD.

In two early case-control studies , high intakes of dark-green leafy vegetables especially rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoids present in the retina, were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing AMD 67, Interestingly, vegetable intake was not associated with the risk of AMD in this cohort. Another study combining lutein and zeaxanthin intake was not associated with the prevalence of intermediate AMD in a cohort of women aged years A more detailed account of the epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between dietary and supplemental carotenoids and AMD risk can be found in the article on Carotenoids.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a condition that combines emphysema and chronic bronchitis , two chronic lung conditions that are characterized by airway obstruction.

Early observational studies in Europe indicated that higher fruit intakes, especially apple intakes, were associated with higher spirometric values including forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] , indicative of better lung function In a cross-sectional study of 2, middle-aged Welsh men, slower declines in lung function were associated with the consumption of at least five apples weekly compared to no consumption Another study of 2, European men followed over 20 years found that each g 3.

In a large prospective cohort study that followed 44, Swedish men mean age, Subgroup analyses showed that fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with COPD risk in current and former smokers, but not in men who never smoked. A three-year randomized controlled study in patients with COPD mean age, Shifting to a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables prevented the decline of lung function observed in subjects who consumed the control diet Environment and lifestyle changes, including shifts toward unhealthy diets, are thought to contribute to the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in industrialized countries.

Observational studies that examined asthma and allergic symptoms in relation to fruit and vegetable intakes have provided mixed results In contrast, the most recent cross-sectional study of 3, participants in the European Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence GA 2 LEN showed no association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of asthma and chronic rhino-sinusitis Pooled data analyses showed an inverse association between vegetable intake and risk of asthma, as well as fruit intake and asthma severity and risk of wheeze A previous meta-analysis of observational studies reported lower risks of wheeze and asthma with higher intakes of fruit and vegetables in adults and children in cross-sectional studies, but not all prospective cohort studies have supported these findings Subgroup analyses also suggested inverse associations between intakes of apples, citrus fruit, and tomatoes and risks of wheeze and asthma.

Finally, pooled analyses of prospective cohort studies have revealed no association between fruit or vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk of wheeze or asthma in the offspring Results from most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies suggest that diets rich in fruit and vegetables might help prevent age-related cognitive deterioration and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease AD A systematic review identified 11 prospective cohort studies 88 , of which four examined fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to incidence of neurodegenerative diseases.

All four prospective studies reported inverse associations between consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of developing mild cognitive impairments or dementia , including AD Fruit consumption was not associated with changes in cognitive performance in this study However, a more recently published NHS study in 16, women analyzed intakes of major flavonoid -containing foods in relation to cognitive test scores and reported less cognitive decline with higher long-term intakes of strawberries and blueberries Finally, a meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies showed better global cognition in healthy older adults consuming the Mediterranean diet compared to control diets.

In contrast, there were no differences in measures of episodic, semantic, and working memory between diets To date, only a few interventions have examined the overall effect of fruit- and vegetable-rich diets on cognition in cognitively healthy older adults. One trial assessed cognitive changes in older adults mean age, Following a median of 4. Compared to participants in the control diet group, those who followed the Mediterranean diet plus nuts had improved composite cognitive test scores for memory, while those in the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil group had better composite scores for frontal function and global cognition Because regular consumption of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases , it may also improve overall health and longevity.

A meta-analysis of 95 prospective cohort studies found that daily consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with cause-specific and all-cause mortality 2. In addition, the risk of all-cause mortality was lower with higher intakes of specific types of fruit and vegetables.

Although the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend fresh, frozen, and canned fruit equally, the consumption of the latter has been associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiovascular related mortality in a pooled analysis of three UK-based prospective studies found with consumption of tinned fruit

Mother-in-law: love her or hate her?

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated.

Katie is a 6th grader who has been writing and illustrating stories since she was 2. She enjoys writing creative science fiction stories. Books by Katie Guy.

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Anna H. On October 28, Anna married Frederick E. Anna was a member of Holy Spirit Catholic Parish where she also worked for 15 years. Anna is preceded in death by her parents, a brother, David J. Eeck, Jr. Anna is survived by her beloved husband, Frederick E. Zickwolf of 69 years; a son, Frederick D. And great grandson, Adrian Zickwolf. Anna was laid to rest in a private committal service at Resurrection Catholic Cemetery.

Berlin Wall

Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts, are prominent features of healthy dietary patterns. In addition to providing energy and essential micronutrients, plant-based foods contribute thousands of biologically active phytochemicals plant chemicals that may affect health to the human diet. While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals is limited. Although scientists are very interested in the potential for specific phytochemicals to prevent or treat disease, current scientific evidence suggests that plant-based foods are the healthiest phytochemical delivery system.

The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" from building a socialist state in East Germany. The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the " Wall of Shame ", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.

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As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. In the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis nv , a preferred model organism for the evolution of key bilaterian features, a TRPM2 ortholog has been identified that contains a NUDT9H domain as well. An alternative ADPR binding site seems to be present but has not yet been characterized. All these manipulations create channels that are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide which fails to induce channel activity in wild-type nv TRPM2.

Your Community Recorder newspaper serving Elsmere and Erlanger kynews communitypress. Durr YMCA. Students at Tichenor Middle School got a lesson in flight, or more appropriately floating. As part of a lesson science the students built and got a ride on their own homemade hover craft. Read what both men say they hope to accomplish as the jail prepares to move from Covington to a new facility further south in the county. Read what Karl plans to do if re-elected, and what Shelton plans to change if he wins the position.

Mothers are honored and revered on a hallowed day this month. Mothers-in-law are tossed into the celebrations, too, along with grandmothers, step-mothers, god-mothers, aunts, sisters, and other meaningful female elders. But leave mothers-in-law unto themselves, and the sentiments would more likely be found in the Rodney Dangerfield section of the Hallmark store. Witness these jokes and their intended butts:. I saw six men kicking and punching the mother-in-law. Just got back from a pleasure trip: I took my mother-in-law to the airport. My mother-in-law had a pain beneath her left breast.

Oct 31, - Already this finding suggests that Ca2+ exerts an action on the pore simulated by the extracellular application of H2O2 (Wehage et al., ). During evolution, the sea anemone has separated from man some million years ago. Scholar]; Tarrant A. M., Reitzel A. M., Kwok C. K., Jenny M. J. ().by F Kühn - ‎ - ‎Cited by 10 - ‎Related articles.

The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nv TRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nv TRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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